Saturday, 6 September 2014

REVISION ON NUCLEAR,LIGHT, WAVE, PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND GENERAL


                                                         REVISION


Data:  c = 3x108 ms-1     h = 6.63x10-34 Js     mass of an electron = 9.1x10-31 kg


1. What are the four types of solid?
2. Give one example of each
3. What are their elastic properties?
4. What is the photoelectric effect?
5. What does it prove?
6. How would you demonstrate that particles can have wave properties?
7. What does the energy level diagram of an atom enable you to predict?
8. What is meant by simple harmonic motion?
9. What is resonance?
10. Give an everyday example of resonance.
11. What are free electrons?
12. What is meant by fusion?
13. What is meant by fission?
14. What material is used in fission?
15. What material is used in fusion?
16. Calculate the loss of mass of the Sun per second given that the rate at which energy falls onto 1 m2 of the Earth’s surface is 1400 W. The Earth is 1.5x1011 m from the Sun.
17. What is a quantum of radiation?
18. What conditions are necessary for a static interference pattern?
19. What is diffraction?
20. Sketch the diffraction pattern for a single slit.
21. Which diffracts more radio waves or TV?
22. Write down in order of increasing frequency the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
23. What does the alpha particle scattering experiment show?
24. What does the instantaneous emission of an electron in the photoelectric effect prove about the radiation falling on the surface?
25. What condition is required for the photoelectric effect to occur?
26.What is the effect on the emitted photoelectrons of an increase in:
(a) The frequency of the incident radiation
(b) The intensity of the incident radiation
27. An electron suffers a large energy change within the atom – emitting radiation
(a) How does it do this?
(b) Does this large change give out a photon of large or small frequency?
28. Describe or draw the microscopic view of a polycrystalline material
29. Describe the structure of a polymer and state what happens when it is stretched.
30. What is meant by damped shm?
31. What is the effect on the activity of a radioactive source of lowering the pressure and/or temperature?
32. Define tensile stress.
33. Define tensile strain.
34. What happens to the period of a simple harmonic motion when its amplitude is altered?
35. (a) What is Hooke’s Law?
(b) What is meant by the elastic limit?
(c) What is meant by plastic deformation?
36. What are the three stages that lead to the emission of a photon of light from an atom?
37.What is meant by:
(a) the period of an oscillation
(b) critical damping?
38. What is a stationary wave?
39. What is a node?
40. What is an antinode?
41. What is the fundamental wavelength of a tube of length 1m that is open at both ends?
42. What is the fundamental wavelength of a tube of length 1m that is open at one end?
43. What two factors determine the fundamental frequency of a tube apart from its structure and size?
44. Describe how the air molecules vibrate in a tube that is emitting a sound.
45. What happens to light when it travels from air into glass?
46. What is meant by total internal reflection?
47. What is meant by the critical angle?
48. Explain why total internal reflection cannot occur when light travels from air to glass.
49. Describe or draw the action of a prism in reversing the direction of a beam of light.
50. What is meant by fibre optics?
51. Describe two use of fibre optics.
52. What is meant by wave-particle duality?
53. What is a moderator?
54. What charge has:
(a) a proton?
(b) a neutron?
55. When light passes from air into glass what happens to:
(a) its speed?
(b) its wavelength?
(c) its frequency?
56. Which particles cause fission in a nuclear reactor?
57. What is meant by the term – chain reaction?
58. What would you notice about the interference pattern in a double slit experiment if the light used was changed from red to blue? Explain your answer!
59. Why can’t you get a static interference pattern from two light bulbs?
60. What factors would affect the frequency of a stretched string and how?
61. Is the motion of a girl bouncing up and down on a trampoline s.h.m?
Explain your answer.
62. What is meant by the term coherent light?
63. Calculate the critical angle for glass of refractive index 1.55.
64. Why do sun tanned legs look less brown when they are in water than out of it?
65. What is meant by polarisation?
66. What is a transverse wave?
67. What is a longitudinal wave?
68. How could you prove that microwaves are transverse waves while sound is a longitudinal wave?
69. What is the wavelength of an electron travelling at 2.5x107 ms-1?
70. (a) What is the wavelength of the photon emitted due to an electron transition between two energy levels with an energy difference of 3.4x10-19 J?
(b) in what region of the electromagnetic spectrum is this?
71. In simple harmonic motion at which point on the oscillation is:
(a) The acceleration greatest?
(b) The velocity greatest?
(c) the velocity least?
72. A beam of light of wavelength 600 nm hits a glass air interface at an angle of 40o. If the velocity of light in glass is 2x108 ms-1 find:
(a) The angle of refraction
(b) The wavelength of the light in the glass
73. What happens to the diffraction pattern produced by a single slit if the slit is made narrower?
74. Why is the total force needed to break a piece of wire greater than the number of atoms in the cross sectional area times the force between individual atoms?
75. A piece of wire is extended 20 cm by a force of 200 N. How much energy is stored in the wire?
76. What is the formula for the energy stored in a stretched wire per unit volume?
77. A cello string has a length of 75cm.
(a) What is the fundamental wavelength produced by the string?
(b) What other wavelengths can be produced without changing its tension?
78. Discuss the factors affecting whether the motion of the piston in a cylinder is shm.
79. Which is the more dangerous – 1 mg of an isotope with a short half-life or 1 mg of the same element with a long half-life?
80. What is the structure of an alpha particle?
81. What is an S wave?
82. What is a P wave?
83. Which one will not pass through the core of the Earth and why?
84. What type of radiation would be useful for checking cracks in castings?
85. Give two examples of simple harmonic motion.
86. What effect would reducing the distance between the two slits have on a double slit interference pattern?
87. Show that the unit for the Planck constant is the Js.
88. What are the typical values for the range in air of:
(a) An alpha particle?
(b) A beta particle?
89. Why is a moderator used in a nuclear reactor?
90. What is meant by a plane polarised wave?
91. Describe an experiment to test whether a beam of light is plane polarised.
92. Give:
(a) One desirable effect of resonance
(b) One undesirable effect of resonance
93. Why do electrons not deflect alpha particles?
94. Give two desirable characteristics of the radioactive source use in a domestic smoke alarm.
95. Why is the refractive index a number with no units?
96. What other units apart from joules can be used to give the energy difference between two atomic energy levels?
97. How does the period of vertical oscillation of a lift alter if more people get into the lift?
98. What kind of radiation is usually detected using a school cloud chamber?
99.What happens to the speed of sound in air as the temperature rises?
100. Name a scientific device that makes use of wave-particle duality.