Sunday, 14 September 2014

SPEED, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION AND DISPLACEMENT PROBLEMS WITH ANSWERS




A girl travels 20 miles on her bicycle. The trip takes 2 hours.  Express her speed in miles/hr. 
  1. First, we identify the variables in our problem:
distance (d) = 20 miles
time (t) = 2 hours
  1. We place the variables in their correct position in the speed formula
S = d/t
S = 20 mi/2 hour
  1. Perform the calculation and express the resulting speed value with the appropriate unit:
S = 10 mi/hr

A car starts from a stoplight and is traveling with a velocity of 10 m/sec east in 20 seconds.  What is the acceleration of the car?
  1. First we identify the information that we are given in the problem:
vf - 10 m/sec
vo - 0 m/sec
time - 20 seconds
  1. Then we insert the given information into the acceleration formula:
a = (vf - vo)/t
a = (10 m/sec - 0 m/sec)/20 sec
  1. Solving the problem gives an acceleration value of 0.5 m/sec2.
Now try on your own:
1. What is the speed of a rocket that travels 9000 meters in 12.12 seconds? 742.57 m/s

2. What is the speed of a jet plane that travels 528 meters in 4 seconds? 132 m/s
3. How long will your trip take (in hours) if you travel 350 km at an average speed of 80 km/hr? 4.38 h

4. How far (in meters) will you travel in 3 minutes running at a rate of 6 m/s? 1,080 m


5. A trip to Cape Canaveral, Florida takes 10 hours. The distance is 816 km. Calculate
 the average speed. 81.6 km/h


6. How many seconds will it take for a satellite to travel 450 km at a rate of 120 m/s? 3,750 s

7. What is the speed of a walking person in m/s if the person travels 1000 m in 20 minutes? 0.80 m/s


8. A ball rolls down a ramp for 15 seconds.  If the initial velocity of the ball was 0.8 m/sec and the
                final velocity was 7 m/sec, what was the acceleration of the ball ?  0.413 m/s²


9. A meteoroid changed velocity from 1.0 km/s to 1.8 km/s in 0.03 seconds. What is the acceleration of
                the meteoroid? 26.7 km/ s²


10. A car going 50mph accelerates to pass a truck. Five seconds later the car is going 80mph. Calculate
                the acceleration of the car. 6 mph/s


11. The space shuttle releases a space telescope into orbit around the earth. The telescope goes from
                being stationary to traveling at a speed of 1700 m/s in 25 seconds. What is the acceleration of
                the satellite? 68 m/s²


12. A ball is rolled at a velocity of 12 m/sec.  After 36 seconds, it comes to a stop.  What is the
                acceleration of the ball? -0.33 m/s²


13. How much force is needed to accelerate a truck with a mass of 2,000 kg, at a rate of 3 m/s²? 6,000 N



14. A dragster in a race accelerated from stop to 60 m/s by the time it reached the finish line. The 
                dragster moved in a straight line and traveled from the starting line to the finish line in 8.0
                sec. What was the acceleration of the dragster? 7.5 m/s²

15. A 300 N force acts on a 25 kg object. The acceleration of the object is 12 m/s²

Know ALSO the following vocabulary terms:
Constant speed – Speed that does not change
Velocity – Speed in a given direction
Frame of reference – A background used to judge motion or speed
Instantaneous Speed – Speed at a given moment in time
Speed – amount of distance traveled in a certain amount of time
Average Speed – total distance divided by total time
Time-Distance Graph – graph that shows speed of an object
Acceleration – change in velocity over time
Motion – an object changing position or distance in time
Rate of Change – amount of time it takes to change position or motion
Inertia - tendency of a still object to stay still or miving object to keep moving unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Force – push or pull
Centripetal Force – force keeping objects moving in a circle
Gravity – pull of objects in the universe – pull determined by mass and distance
Newton’s Three Laws of Motion – 1st: Law of Inertia (see Inertia definition); 2nd: Force=mass x acceleration;
3rd: For every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction